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Strength of Legal Rights Index

Various
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit.

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Asylum Detention Conditions

Various
Persons suspected of having infringed visas, of having entered illegally or of having entered without authorisation, until the immigration authorities decide to issue a visa or return them to their country of origin.

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Regulation and Restriction of Businesses

Various
This dataset includes the regulation and restrictions for businesses as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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The EU Blue Card

Various
The EU Blue Card was introduced in 2009 as a part of the European Council Directive to focus on selective migration policy.

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Global Cybersecurity Index

Various
Global Cyber Security Index (GCI) compares the commitment of countries with regards to the five pillars of the cybersecurity agenda (legal, technical, organizational, capacity building, cooperation). It is constructed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

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Lockdown

Various
This dataset includes mandatory lockdowns as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Quarantine

Various
This dataset contains policies regarding mandatory quarantine as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Types of Asylum Procedures in Europe

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The dataset gives an overview of the different types of asylum procedures across Europe that were in place in 2016.

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Dublin Asylum Procedure

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The Dublin system establishes the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application.

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Accelerated Asylum Procedure

Various
Asylum procedure conducted in shorter time-frames and involving reduced procedural safeguards, including reduced time-limits for lodging appeals (in 2016).

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Asylum Reception Criteria

Various
Asylum seekers are entitled to reception conditions as defined in the Asylum Seekers' Benefits Act from the moment they arrive at the reception centre to which they have been assigned and where they are issued an “arrival certificate”. Data reported in 2016.

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Asylum Detention: General Information

Various
Policy of detaining persons suspected of having infringed visas, of having entered illegally or of having entered without authorisation, and of having been deported and expelled, until the immigration authorities decide to issue a visa and release them to the Community or return them to their country of origin.

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Declaration of Emergency

Various
This dataset includes Declaration of Emergency policies as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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E-Government Development Index (EGDI)

Various
E-Government Development Index (EGDI) compares all UN Member States in regards to their national e-government effectiveness in the delivery of public services.

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Tax Subsidy Rates on R&D Expenditures (1-B-Index)

Various
The tax subsidy rate is calculated as 1 minus the B-index, a measure of the before-tax income needed to break even on USD 1 of R&D outlays (Warda, 2001). It is based on responses from national finance/tax/innovation authorities and R&D statistical agencies to the OECD questionnaire on R&D tax incentives and also draws on other publicly available information.

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Admissibility Asylum Procedure

Various
Overview of countries that have used the admissibility interview to examine applications under the Dublin procedure. Data were reported in 2016.

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Asylum Reception: Access to Labor, Education and Health Care

Various
Asylum seekers are entitled to reception conditions as defined in the Asylum Seekers' Benefits Act from the moment they arrive at the reception centre to which they have been assigned and where they are issued an “arrival certificate”. Data reported in 2016.

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Minimum Wage Exemptions

Various
Exemptions of the statutory minimum wage for the Eurozone Member States in 2018.

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CoronaNet: Policy Measures related to Covid-19

Various
The CoronaNet Research Project compiles a database on government responses to the coronavirus. The main focus is to collect as much information as possible about the various fine-grained actions governments are taking to address the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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ICT Development

Various
ICT Development Index (IDI) monitors developments in information and communication technology between countries and over time. It is provided by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

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Industrial Robots

Various
Industrial robots per 10,000 employees and annual shipments of industrial robots

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Innovation Effort Indicators

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The dataset contains indicators for public and private innovation efforts. It is difficult to make a thorough distinction between R&D and innovation. However, R&D is considered to be the underlying source of inventions that drive innovation. More information is available in the ifo DICE Report 4/2019: Innovation Policy. Note: BERD =  R&D expenditure of the business sector

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External Border Restrictions

Various
This dataset includes external border restrictions as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.
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Declaration of Emergency

Various Policy duration per month

The following dataset contains information on Declaration of Emergency as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Direct Government Funding of BERD

Various % of GDP
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EU Blue Cards Issued in 2016

Various Cards
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Existence of Dublin Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Dublin system establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application.

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Existence of Others

Various 0=no; 1=yes
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Existence of Accelerated Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Asylum procedure conducted in shorter time-frames and involving reduced procedural safeguards, including reduced time-limits for lodging appeals.

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Existence of Admissibility Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Article 5 of the Dublin III Regulation foresees that a personal interview takes place in order to establish the determining State under the Dublin procedure.

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Existence of Border Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Article 43 of the recast Asylum Procedures Directive allows for procedures relating to the admissibility and/or the substance of an asylum application to take place at the border for up to a period

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Existence of Regular Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes
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External Border Restrictions

Various Policy duration per month

The following dataset contains information on external border restrictions as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Fee - EU Blue Card in Euros

Various Euros
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Gross R&D Expenditures

Various % of GDP
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ICT Development Index (IDI): Score

Various Index (1-10)
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Less than 105% of Minimum Wage

Various percentage
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Less than Minimum Wage

Various percentage
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Lockdown

Various Policy duration per month

The following dataset contains information on mantadory lockdowns as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Minimum Wage: Age-specific Exemptions

Various

In a number of countries, age-specific exemptions of the minimum wage apply. In the individual countries, the exemptions vary greatly in their design and structure.

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Minimum Wage: Exemptions related to Work Experience

Various

In a number of countries, exemptions of the minimum wage related to work-experience apply. In the individual countries, the exemptions vary greatly in their design and structure.

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Minimum Wage: Sector-specific Exemptions

Various

In a number of countries, sector-specific exemptions of the minimum wage apply. In the individual countries, the exemptions vary greatly in their design and structure.

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Number of Researchers Employed

Various per 1000 employed
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Quarantine

Various Policy duration per month

The following dataset contains information on mandatory quarantine as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Restriction and Regulation of Businesses

Various Policy duration per month

The following dataset contains information on the regulation and restriction of businesses as a policy response to Covid-19 at the national level.

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Special Threshold - EU Blue Card

Various Euros
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Total Capacity

Various

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