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Tax Subsidy Rates on R&D Expenditures (1-B-Index)

Various
The tax subsidy rate is calculated as 1 minus the B-index, a measure of the before-tax income needed to break even on USD 1 of R&D outlays (Warda, 2001). It is based on responses from national finance/tax/innovation authorities and R&D statistical agencies to the OECD questionnaire on R&D tax incentives and also draws on other publicly available information.

Custom

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The EU Blue Card

Various
The EU Blue Card was introduced in 2009 as a part of the European Council Directive to focus on selective migration policy.

Custom

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Types of Asylum Procedures in Europe

Various
The dataset gives an overview of the different types of asylum procedures across Europe that were in place in 2016.

Custom

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Unemployment Rates

World Bank Group
The unemployment rate is the number of people unemployed as a percentage of the labor force.

Working Paper

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Unit Values at Basic Prices

In retail, unit price is the price for a single unit of measure of a product sold in more or less than the single unit. The "unit price" tells you the cost per unit of weight or volume of a food package. It is usually posted on the shelf below the food. The figures in this dataset refer to the price per tonne.
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EU Blue Cards Issued in 2016

Various Cards
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Existence of Dublin Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Dublin system establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application.

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Existence of Others

Various 0=no; 1=yes
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Existence of Accelerated Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Asylum procedure conducted in shorter time-frames and involving reduced procedural safeguards, including reduced time-limits for lodging appeals.

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Existence of Admissibility Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Article 5 of the Dublin III Regulation foresees that a personal interview takes place in order to establish the determining State under the Dublin procedure.

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Existence of Border Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes

Article 43 of the recast Asylum Procedures Directive allows for procedures relating to the admissibility and/or the substance of an asylum application to take place at the border for up to a period

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Existence of Regular Procedure

Various 0=no; 1=yes
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Fee - EU Blue Card in Euros

Various Euros
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Special Threshold - EU Blue Card

Various Euros
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Unemployment Rate (ILO Estimates)

World Bank Group Percent J64

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. These estimates are recorded annually, in percent (%). 

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Unemployment Rate (National Estimates)

World Bank Group Percent J64

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. It is measured anually, as a percent (%).

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